Saturday, July 26, 2014

Nix pill 4: the basics of the language

Welcome to the fourth Nix pill. In the previous third pill we entered the Nix environment. We installed software as user, managed the profile, switched between generations, and queried the nix store. That's the very basics of nix administration somehow.

The Nix language is used to write derivations. The nix-build tool is used to build derivations. Even as a system administrator that wants to customize the installation, it's necessary to master Nix. Using Nix for your jobs means you get the features we saw in the previous pills for free.

The syntax is very uncommon thus looking at existing examples may lead to thinking that there's a lot of magic behind. In reality, it's only about writing utility functions for making things convenient.
On the other hand, this same syntax is great for describing packages.

Important: in Nix, everything is an expression, there are no statements. This is common to many functional languages.
Important: values in Nix are immutable.

Value types

We've installed nix-repl in the previous pill. If you didn't, nix-env -i nix-repl. The nix-repl syntax is slightly different than nix syntax when it comes to assigning variables, but no worries.  I prefer playing with nix-repl with you before cluttering your mind with more complex expressions.

Launch nix-repl. First of all, nix supports basic arithmetic operations: +, -, and *. The integer division can be done with builtins.div.
nix-repl> 1+3
nix-repl> builtins.div 6 3
Really, why doesn't nix have basic operations such as division? Because it's not needed for creating packages. Nix is not a general purpose language, it's a domain-specific language for writing packages.
Just think that builtins.div is not being used in the whole of our nixpkgs repository: it's useless.

Other operators are ||, && and ! for booleans, and relational operators such as !=, ==, <, >, <=, >=. In Nix, <, >, <= and >= are not much used. There are also other operators we will see in the course of this series.

Nix has integer (not floating point), string, path, boolean and null simple types. Then there are lists, sets and functions. These types are enough to build an operating system.

Nix is strongly typed, but it's not statically typed. That is, you cannot mix strings and integers, you must first do the conversion. 

Try to use / between two numbers:
nix-repl> 2/3
Nix parsed 2/3 as a relative path to the current directory. Paths are parsed as long as there's a slash. Therefore to specify the current directory, use ./.
In addition, Nix also parses urls.

Not all urls or paths can be parsed this way. If a syntax error occurs, it's still possible to fallback to plain strings. Parsing urls and paths are convenient for additional safety.


Not much to say, except that dash (-) is allowed in identifiers. That's convenient since many packages use dash in its name. In fact:
nix-repl> a-b
error: undefined variable `a-b' at (string):1:1
nix-repl> a - b
error: undefined variable `a' at (string):1:1
As you can see, a-b is parsed as identifier, not as operation between a and b.


It's important to understand the syntax for strings. When reading Nix expressions at the beginning, you may find dollars ($) ambiguous in their usage.
Strings are enclosed by double quotes ("), or two single quotes ('').
nix-repl> "foo"
nix-repl> ''foo''
In python you can use also single quotes for strings like 'foo', but not in Nix.

It's possible to interpolate whole Nix expressions inside strings with ${...} and only with ${...}, not $foo or {$foo} or anything else.
nix-repl> foo = "strval"
nix-repl> "$foo"
nix-repl> "${foo}"
nix-repl> "${2+3}"
error: cannot coerce an integer to a string, at (string):1:2
Note: ignore the foo = "strval" assignment, it's nix-repl special syntax.

As said previously, you cannot mix integers and strings. You explicitly need conversion. We'll see this later: function calls are another story.

Using the syntax with two single quotes, it's useful for writing double quotes inside strings instead of escaping:
nix-repl> ''test " test''
"test \" test"
nix-repl> ''${foo}''
Escaping ${...} within double quoted strings is done with the backslash. Within two single quotes, it's done with '':
nix-repl> "\${foo}"
nix-repl> ''test ''${foo} test''
"test ${foo} test"
No other magic about strings for now.


Lists are a sequence of expressions delimited by space (not comma):
nix-repl> [ 2 "foo" true (2+3) ]
[ 2 "foo" true 5 ]
Lists, like anything else in Nix, are immutable. Adding or removing elements from a list is possible, but will return a new list.


Sets are an association between a string key and a Nix expression. Keys can only be strings. When writing sets you can also use identifiers as keys.
nix-repl> s = { foo = "bar"; a-b = "baz"; "123" = "num"; }
nix-repl> s
{ 123 = "num"; a-b = "baz"; foo = "bar"; }
Note: here the string representation from nix is wrong, you can't write { 123 = "num"; } because 123 is not an identifier.
You need semicomma (;) after every key-value assignment.

For those reading Nix expressions from nixpkgs: do not confuse sets with argument sets used in functions.

To access elements in the set:
nix-repl> s.a-b
nix-repl> s."123"
Yes, you can use strings for non-identifiers to address keys in the set.

You cannot refer inside a set to elements of the same set:
nix-repl> { a = 3; b = a+4; }
error: undefined variable `a' at (string):1:10
To do so, use recursive sets:
nix-repl> rec { a= 3; b = a+4; }
{ a = 3; b = 7; }
This will be very convenient when defining packages.

If expression

Expressions, not statements.
nix-repl> a = 3
nix-repl> b = 4
nix-repl> if a > b then "yes" else "no"
You can't have only the "then" branch, you must specify also the "else" branch, because an expression must have a value in all cases.

Let expression

This kind of expression is used to define local variables to inner expressions.
nix-repl> let a = "foo"; in a
The syntax is: first assign variables, then "in" expression. The overall result will be the final expression after "in".
nix-repl> let a = 3; b = 4; in a + b
Let's write two let expressions, one inside the other:
nix-repl> let a = 3; in let b = 4; in a + b
With let you cannot assign twice to the same variable. You can however shadow outer variables:
nix-repl> let a = 3; a = 8; in a
error: attribute `a' at (string):1:12 already defined at (string):1:5
nix-repl> let a = 3; in let a = 8; in a
You cannot refer to variables in a let expression outside of it:
nix-repl> let a = (let b = 3; in b); in b
error: undefined variable `b' at (string):1:31
You can refer to variables in the let expression when assigning variables like with recursive sets:
nix-repl> let a = 4; b = a + 5; in b
So beware when you want to refer to a variable from the outer scope, but it's being defined in the current let expression. Same applies to recursive sets.

With expression

This kind of expression is something you hardly see in other languages. Think of it like a more granular "using" of C++, or "from module import *" from Python. You decide per-expression when to include symbols into the scope.
nix-repl> longName = { a = 3; b = 4; }
nix-repl> longName.a + longName.b
nix-repl> with longName; a + b
That's it, it takes a set and includes symbols in the scope of the inner expression. Of course, only valid identifiers from the set keys will be included.
If a symbol exists in the outer scope and also in the "with" scope, it will not be shadowed. You can however still refer to the set:
nix-repl> let a = 10; in with longName; a + b
nix-repl> let a = 10; in with longName; longName.a + b


Nix evaluates expression only when needed. This is a great feature when working with packages.
nix-repl> let a = builtins.div 4 0; b = 6; in b
Since "a" is not needed, there's no error about division by zero, because the expression is not in need to be evaluated.
That's why we can have all the packages defined here, yet access to specific packages very fast.

Next pill

...we will talk about functions and imports. In this pill I've tried to avoid function calls as much as possible, otherwise the post would have been too long.

Nix pill 5 is available for reading here.

To be notified about the new pill, stay tuned on #NixPills, follow @lethalman or subscribe to the nixpills rss.


Carlo Nucera said...

Hey, (at least from) this post onward, this series is great!!! Keep on with the good work!!!

(as an aside: nix + haskell + Calabria is a quite rare combination!!! (I'm spending vacations near Reggio)).

Luca Bruno aka Lethalman said...

Thanks Carlo :) I hope you enjoy Calabria. My vacation will start in a week.

Alin said...

I am feeling quite interested to know about Nix language!! Great!

Shanthakumar V said...

Nice ;)

Shanthakumar V said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Priya Kannan said...

Wonderful bloggers like yourself who would positively reply encouraged me to be more open and engaging in commenting.So know it's helpful.
PHP Training in Chennai

Nicholas de said...

It is very interesting to learn from to easy understood. Thank you for giving information. Please let us know and more information get post to link.
mulesoft training online

gowsalya saranya said...

Existing without the answers to the difficulties you’ve sorted out through this guide is a tical case, as well as the kind which could have badly affected my entire career if I had not discovered your website.
Digital Marketing Training in Chennai

Aws Training in Chennai

Selenium Training in Chennai

johnsy sai said...

Thanks a lot very much for the high quality and results-oriented help. I won’t think twice to endorse your blog post to anybody who wants and needs support about this area.
Digital Marketing Training in Bangalore

digital marketing training in tambaram

digital marketing training in annanagar

digital marketing training in marathahalli

digital marketing training in rajajinagar

Digital Marketing online training

Mouni yoga said...

I love the blog. Great post. It is very true, people must learn how to learn before they can learn. lol I know it sounds funny but its very true. . .
python training institute in chennai
python training in Bangalore
python training institute in chennai

aruna raj said...

This is an awesome post.Really very informative and creative contents. These concept is a good way to enhance the knowledge.I like it and help me to development very well.Thank you for this brief explanation and very nice information.Well, got a good knowledge.

Blueprism training in btm

Blueprism online training

AWS Training in chennai

Shanthakumar said...

How does digital marketing training related to 5hus blog post?

geetha sridhar said...

Thanks for your informative article, Your post helped me to understand the future and career prospects & Keep on updating your blog with such awesome article.
Data Science training in rajaji nagar
Data Science training in chennai
Data Science training in electronic city
Data Science training in USA
Data science training in pune
Data science training in kalyan nagar

sudhagar raja said...

Inspiring writings and I greatly admired what you have to say , I hope you continue to provide new ideas for us all and greetings success always for you..Keep update more information..

java training in chennai | java training in bangalore

java online training | java training in pune

Anonymous said...

Excellant post!!!. The strategy you have posted on this technology helped me to get into the next level and had lot of information in it.

angularjs Training in chennai

angularjs-Training in tambaram

angularjs-Training in sholinganallur

angularjs-Training in velachery

angularjs Training in bangalore

narayana p said...

Thanks for sharing this post. Your post is really very helpful its students. python online course