Thursday, February 19, 2015

NixOS, Consul, Nginx and containers

This is a follow up post on . I think the post was well written, so I decided to write a variant using NixOS.

We'll be using declarative nixos containers, which do not use docker but systemd-nspawn. Also systemd is started as init system inside containers.

Please note that this configuration can be applied to any nixos machine, and also the containers configuration could be applied to real servers or other kinds of virtualization, e.g. via nixops. That is, the same syntax and configuration can be reused anywhere else within the nix world.

For example, you could create docker containers with nixos, and keep running the host with another distribution.

However for simplicity we'll use a NixOS system.

Architecture: the host runs nginx and a consul server, then spawns several containers with a python service and a consul client. On the host, consul-template will rewrite the nginx configuration when the health check status of container services change.

Please use a recent unstable release of nixos at the time of this writing (19 Feb 2015, at least commit aec96d4), as it contains the recently packaged consul-template.

Step 1: write the service

Let's write our python service in /root/
#!/usr/bin/env python

import random

from flask import Flask
app = Flask(__name__)

def find_prime(start):
    Find a prime greater than `start`.
    current = start
    while True:
        for p in xrange(2, current):
            if current % p == 0:
            return current
        current += 1

def home():
    return str(find_prime(random.randint(2 ** 25, 2 ** 26)))

if __name__ == "__main__":'', port=8080, debug=True)
The only difference with the original post is that we explicitly set the port to 8080 (who knows if a day flask changes the default port).

Step 2: write the nixos config

Write the following in /etc/nixos/prime.nix:
{ lib, pkgs, config, ... }:


  pypkgs = pkgs.python27Packages;

  # Create a self-contained package for our service
  work = pkgs.stdenv.mkDerivation {
    name = "work";
    unpackPhase = "true";
    buildInputs = [ pkgs.makeWrapper pypkgs.python pypkgs.flask ];
    installPhase = ''
      mkdir -p $out/bin
      cp ${/root/} $out/bin/
      chmod a+rx $out/bin/
      wrapProgram $out/bin/ --prefix PYTHONPATH : $PYTHONPATH

  # Function which takes a network and the final octet, and returns a container
  mkContainer = net: octet: {
    privateNetwork = true;
    hostAddress = "${net}.1";
    localAddress = "${net}.${octet}";
    autoStart = true;

    config = { config, pkgs, ... }:
        users.mutableUsers = false;
        # Use this only for debugging, login the machine with machinectl
        users.extraUsers.root.password = "root";
        # Let consul run check scripts = "/run/current-system/sw/bin/bash";

        environment.etc."consul/prime.json".text = builtins.toJSON {
          service = {
            name = "prime";
            tags = [ "nginx" ];
            port = 8080;
            check = {
              script = "${pkgs.curl}/bin/curl localhost:8080 >/dev/null 2>&1";
              interval = "30s";
        }; = {
          wantedBy = [ "" ];

          serviceConfig = {
            ExecStart = "${work}/bin/";

        services.consul = {
          enable = true;
          extraConfig = { 
            server = false;
            start_join = [ "${net}.1" ];
          extraConfigFiles = [ "/etc/consul/prime.json" ];

        networking.firewall = {
          allowedTCPPorts = [ 8080 8400 ];
          allowPing = true;

  nginxTmpl = pkgs.writeText "prime.conf" ''
    upstream primes {
        {{range service "prime"}}
        server {{.Address}}:8080;{{end}}

  containers.prime1 = mkContainer "10.50.0" "2";
  containers.prime2 = mkContainer "10.50.0" "3";
  containers.prime3 = mkContainer "10.50.0" "4";
  containers.prime4 = mkContainer "10.50.0" "5";

  services.consul = {
    enable = true;
    extraConfig = {
      bootstrap = true;
      server = true;

  services.nginx = {
    enable = true;
    httpConfig = ''
      include /etc/nginx/prime.conf;

      server {
        listen 80;

        location / {
          proxy_pass http://primes;
  }; = {
    preStart = ''
      mkdir -p /etc/nginx
      touch -a /etc/nginx/prime.conf

    serviceConfig = {
      Restart = "on-failure";
      RestartSec = "1s";

  # Start order: consul -> consul-template -> nginx = {
    wantedBy = [ "nginx.service" ];
    before = [ "nginx.service" ];
    wants = [ "consul.service" ];
    after = [ "consul.service" ];

    serviceConfig = {
      Restart = "on-failure";
      RestartSec = "1s";
      ExecStart = "${pkgs.consul-template}/bin/consul-template -template '${nginxTmpl}:/etc/nginx/prime.conf:systemctl kill -s SIGHUP nginx'";

  boot.kernel.sysctl."net.ipv4.ip_forward" = true;
Differences with the original post:
  • We only create 4 containers instead of 10. I was lazy here. If you are lazy too, you can still automatize the process with nix functions (for example map).
  • We define some ordering in how services start and how they restart with systemd.
  • For simplicity we include the prime.conf nginx config instead of rewriting the whole nginx config with consul-template.
  • We create a self-contained package for our python service, so that anywhere it runs the dependencies will be satisfied.
Finally import this config in your /etc/nixos/configuration.nix with imports = [ ./prime.nix ];.

Step 3: apply the configuration

Type nixos-rebuild switch and then curl http://localhost. You may have to wait some seconds before consul writes the nginx config. In the while, nginx may have failed to start. If it exceeded the StartTime conditions, you can systemctl start nginx manually.
Fixing this is about tweaking the systemd service values about the StartTime.

Each container consumes practically no disk space at base. Everything else is shared through the host nix store, except logs, consul state, ecc. of course.

Have fun!


DaveE said...

Great post. This is a clear and simple look at how to use containers with Nix. Thanks!

Do you have opinions on Nix containers vs Docker containers?

Luca Bruno said...

No strong opinion, if you have a question like: "how do I do X with docker with debian and nixos containers?", then I could answer and you can judge yourself.

DaveE said...

Do you think NixOS & Docker are useful when used together? Or could everything that Docker does be done in NixOS?

Luca Bruno said...

Only useful if you also want to share the "data", not only the software, between multiple docker instances. But I can't think of any of such cases.

A case where you may want to use docker is to distribute a container. Copy the needed nix software to the container instead of bind mounting /nix from the host, then export it. Given that docker supports incremental changes to the fs, it's cheap for further updates and also for spawning multiple instances of that exported container.

Anonymous said...

When you say copy the needed nix software to the container do you mean nix-copy-closure?
That assumes that container is running nix.
I think a more reasonable approach is to have a way to pull all the nix software pieces together and then tar/ssh the bits to the container from the host system.
It is not clear to me there is a way to do this in nix to tar up all the various pieces?
perhaps you can enlighten me, it would be appreciated.

Luca Bruno said...

You can tar the whole `nix-store -qR /nix/store/somepath` and run the needed program in the container.

Anonymous said...

thanks i was being stupid.
it should have occurred to me to do a store query and then pipe that into tar.
My mind was fixated on nix doing everything for me in one shot.

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Ryan Newton said...

I'm being a little slow here -- are there full instructions somewhere for creating a docker image for running a base NixOS that can be built on? I can find some images on docker hub, e.g.:, but not instructions on how they were made.

The nix-store command above addresses populating the store, but what about the rest of the OS setup? Is that what's handled by the prime.nix in the blog post?

I admit that I've only used nix pkgs, not full nixos, so I'm a bit hazy on how nixos configurations work, and any kind of walkthrough for this container-creation scenario would be much appreciated, if you have one to link to.

Luca Bruno said...

Ryan not sure if you are talking about docker in general, or about docker in this post.

In this post, there's no usage of docker. NixOS containers use systemd-nspawn. It's all automatic, you don't need any image.

nixos-rebuild switch will apply the whole configuration to the host system, and also to the containers.

About how the docker image is done, I couldn't find any documentation but we can look at it together. But that's a completely different thing from this post.

How to technology said...

nice article this is interesting to read!

Anonymous said...

error: The unique option `' is defined multiple times, in `/home/cassou/nixpkgs/nixos/modules/config/users-groups.nix' and `/home/cassou/nixpkgs/nixos/modules/config/users-groups.nix'.

Anonymous said...

I get the same error. "...users.users..." is not the result of a typo. Anyway, it was good to see what a containerized workflow looks like in Nix.

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